The lab investigates physiological markers for a variety of pain conditions in three modalities: Blood-borne, Imaging, and Neurophysiology


Biomarkers such as cytokines which provide indications about the physiological activity that may be present


  • Grosman-Rimon L, Parkinson W, Upadhye S, Clarke H, Katz J, Flannery J, Peng P, Kumbhare DA, Circulating Biomarkers in Acute Myofascial Pain: A Case-Control Study.  Medicine 2016;95(37):4650.

  • Timothy A, Rathbone L, Tharmaradinam S, Jiang S, Rathbone MP, Kumbhare DA, A review of the neuro- and systemic inflammatory responses in post concussion symptoms: Introduction of the “post-inflammatory brain syndrome” PIBS, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 46: 1-16 2015,

  • Kumbhare DA, Parkinson W, Dunlop RB.  Validity of serum creatine kinase for measuring muscle injury in lumbar surgery.  Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques: 21(1):49-54, 2008.


Ultrasound: This modality is an inexpensive and accessible alternative to other modalities (i.e. MRI). Texture feature analysis has demonstrated acceptable performance in discriminating healthy from myofascial pain syndrome but are extremely sensitive to the region of interest chosen. Machine learning techniques can likely obtain the similar performance without this sensitivity issue.

Publications​ ​

  • Behr M, Saiel S, Evans V, Kumbhare DA, Machine learning diagnostic modeling for classifying fibromyalgia using B-mode ultrasound images. Ultrasonic Imaging, 2020 42(3): 135-147.

  • Behr M, Noseworthy M, Kumbhare D. Feasibility of a support vector machine classifier for myofascial pain syndrome, Diagnostic Case-Control Study. J Ultrasound Med. 2019 Aug 1;38(8):2119-2132.

  • Behr M, McNabb E, Noseworthy M, Sidkar S, Kumbhare D. Automatic ROI placement in the upper trapezius muscle in B-mode ultrasound images. Ultrasonic Imaging. 2019 Jul 1;41(4):231-246.

  • Kumbhare DA,  Ahmed S, Behr M, Noseworthy M. Quantitative ultrasound using texture analysis of myofascial pain syndrome in the trapezius. Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering. 2018;97(1):72-74.


Surface and intramuscular electrodiagnostic evaluation of the individual motor unit as well as their recruitment patterns in experimentally induced central sensitization and then moving towards this evaluation in different pain conditions